#1 - Sxwesméllp Landmark


Salmon Arm Wharf Site

Voiced by: Dr. Mary Thomas

Place names transcription by Lucy William and Donna Antoine.

Secwépemc place names visible from Landmark site

Sk̓étkwe / Silketkwa ("Wide Bay")

Tappen Bay

Voiced by Dr. Mary Thomas, first transcription by Lucy William and Donna Antoine, second transcription by Little Shuswap Lake Band


Kault Hill

Voiced by Dr. Mary Thomas, transcribed by Lucy William and Donna Antoine


Mouth of Salmon River

Voiced by Dr. Mary Thomas, transcribed by Lucy William and Donna Antoine


Mount Ida

Voiced by Dr. Mary Thomas, transcribed by Lucy William and Donna Antoine


Bastion Mountain

Voiced by Dr. Mary Thomas, transcribed by Lucy William and Donna Antoine


Fly Hills

Lehets̓éllcw ("Otter Mountain")

Tappen Mountain

Voiced by Dr. Mary Thomas, transcribed by Lucy William and Donna Antoine


Sandy Point

Voiced by Dr. Mary Thomas, transcribed by Lucy William and Donna Antoine

Xgwelecwéll ("Foxes Den")

Engineers Point

Voiced by Dr. Mary Thomas, transcribed by Lucy William and Donna Antoine
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About the Sxwesméllp Landmark Sculpture

The Sxwesméllp Landmark was designed by Secwépemc artists Rod Tomma and Tilkotmes Tomma and settler artist Eric Kutschker. The rose granite Coyote Rock sculpture is similar to rock formations created by Sek'lép, Sk'lap, or Senxúxwlecw (Coyote) throughout Secwepemcúl'ecw. Coyote is well known as a trickster in Secwépemc stsptékwle or stsptákwle (“oral histories”). The metalwork attached to the Coyote Rock highlights oral histories shared by the Secwépemc Lakes Elders Advisory Committee about sxúse/sxúsa (soopolallie) and salmon spawning in Sxwesméllp.

Sxwesméllp, also known today as Sxwetsméllp, Switsmalph, or Switzmalph, means “soopolallie bush” in Secwepemctsín (our Secwépemc language), and refers to the area around the confluence of the Salmon River and Shuswap Lake. Sxúse or sxúsa (soopolallie berries), t'nís (highbush cranberries), and many other plants are cultivated by Secwépemc families here. Fishing weirs were also built along the Salmon River for selectively harvesting salmon and taking only what was needed; leaving the rest to continue their journey.

The establishment of the Indian Reserve system, and laws restricting Secwépemc people from leaving reserves or accessing culturally significant foods, fractured many relationships between Secwépemc communities, families, and their lands and waters. Diversions to the Salmon River for agriculture, railroads, and other developments altered the ecology of the Salmon River Delta, and impacts habitat availability for many culturally significant plants and salmon, who are considered to be relatives of the Secwépemc. The place name Sxwesméllp teaches about this landscape change and restoration, as well as the continued importance of this place to past, present, and future generations of Secwépemc people and the many plants, animals, and fish who share this landscape.

This sculpture location has been blessed by Secwépemc Elders. It is passed down in Secwépemc oral tradition that the land is to be respected and is sacred. Oral tradition teaches one to ask for permission to walk in places on the land, and to act respectfully towards plant and animal relatives while you are there. Please act with caution and respect around these monuments and grandmother/grandfather rocks.

Note: Secwépemc people from Adams Lake Band, Neskonlith Band, Splatsín, and Little Shuswap Lake Band are part of the larger Secwépemc Nation, and have rights and responsibilities to the cultural knowledges and symbols included in this project. Any Intellectual Property Rights associated with these Secwépemc cultural knowledges and symbols inherently belong to the Secwépemc people and cannot be copied or adapted without permission.

Photo Credit:


Secwépemc (“the spread-out people”), a Nation of 32 Salish speaking communities that have been divided into 17 bands by the Indian Act, are 10,000 people strong and growing. Before contact with Europeans, the original population is estimated at 25,000 people, drastically reduced to 7,000 due to the 1862 smallpox epidemic. Secwépemc territory spans approximately 180,000 squared kilometres (112,000 squared miles) which includes the headwaters of the two largest river systems in British Columbia; the Columbia and Fraser River valleys, and extends south to the Arrow Lakes. Secwépemc have occupied their territory, Secwepemcúl̓ecw, for over 10,000 years and have never signed away, ceded or sold their land or territory.


The Secwépemc Landmarks project is led by Adams Lake Band, Neskonlith Band, Little Shuswap Lake Band, and Splatsín, with administrative support from the Shuswap Trail Alliance. The Secwépemc Landmarks Project Team would like to acknowledge with heartfelt gratitude the many community members and sponsors who have made this project possible.

The Secwepemctsín place name audio recordings are by the late Neskonlith Elder Dr. Mary Thomas, whose work as a knowledge keeper and environmentalist inspired many about Secwépemc values of knucwentwécw (helping one another) to learn about and protect Secwépemc traditional plants for future generations. The Secwepemctsín language revisions for the place names transcriptions and signage were completed by Lucy William (Chief Atahm, Chase Eastern dialect) and Donna Antoine (Splatsín dialect). 

The Secwépemc Lakes Elders Advisory Committee, made up of Elders from Adams Lake Band, Neskonlith Band, Splatsín, and Little Shuswap Lake Band, guided this project. Each Landmark sculpture represents oral histories connected to each place. The Project Team would like to acknowledge the contributions and guidance of all Elders attending the Secwépemc Lakes Advisory Committee meetings, including: Betty Arnouse, Virginia Wooldridge, Julianna Alexander, Shirley Bird, Gerry Thomas, Lucy William, Donna Antoine, Ethel Thomas, Lily Anthony, Cliff Arnouse, Dalla Powder, Minnie Kenoras, Donna William, Lawrence Michel, Lorraine Arnouse, Mike Arnouse, Pauline Arnouse, Doris Ono, Jimmy Charles, Jane Thomas, Brian Thomas, Bart Thomas, Louis Thomas, Jane Thomas, Phyllis Thomas, John Jules, Leonard Lazima, Bev Thomas, Juanita Thomas, Helen Duteau, Hop You, John Paul Thomas, Charlotte Francois, Linda August, Wilfred Tomma, Rocky Tomma, Jules Arnouse, Alfred Arnouse, and Leo Tomma. 

Tk'wemi'ple7 Shelley Witzky (Adams Lake Band) is the in-kind Project Lead for the Secwépemc Landmarks project, and the project concept was designed by Tk'wemi'ple7 Shelley and Sutra Brett. The Project Team is made up of Libby Chisholm, Dorry William, Micky Tomma, and Qwelminte Secwépemc interns Devin Doss and Mackenzie Creasser. Landmark Artists include Tania Willard, Rod Tomma, Tilkotmes Tomma, the late Mike Peters, Eric Kutschker, David Jacob Harder, Shayne Hunt, Hop You, Tony Antoine, Vern Clemah, Jules Arnouse, Rick, and Kenthen Thomas (storyteller).

Secwépemc Landmarks project sponsors and in-kind donors include: Adams Lake Band, Neskonlith Band, Little Shuswap Lake Band, Splatsín, the Shuswap Trail Alliance, the Province of British Columbia, Shuswap Tourism, the City of Salmon Arm, SASCU, Hard Rock Granite, the Heritage Legacy Fund of British Columbia, AIM Roads, the Salmon Arm Arts Centre, School District No. 83, Switzmalph Cultural Society. Kukstemc also to staff and students from Shihiya, Chief Atahm, Jackson, Sullivan, SMS, and South Canoe schools for their work on the Secwépemc Landmarks trailhead posts.

Secwépemc Landmarks Project Background

The purpose of the Secwépemc Landmarks Project is to create awareness of Secwépemc traditional territory through the installation of approximately 100 trailhead posts, 16 Secwépemc Landmark sculptures,  and 16 connected interpretive panels that feature Secwépemc place names and oral histories from the Secwépemc Lakes Elders Advisory Committee in the Shuswap Lakes region of Secwepemcúl̓ecw.

100 trailhead posts were carved by youth from Chief Atahm School (Adams Lake Band), Shihiya school (Splatsín), and four schools in School District No. 83 (Shuswap Middle School, Jackson, Sullivan, and South Canoe Outdoor School) under the instruction of Secwépemc storyteller Kenthen Thomas and Secwépemc carvers Hop You and Vern Clemah. The students’ carvings tell the stsptékwle (oral history) of “Coyote and the Salmon”, which Secwépemc storyteller Kenthen Thomas describes as telling the story of how Sek̓lep (Coyote) brought salmon to the Sxwesméllp (also known as Sxwetsméllp or Salmon Arm) area.

The trailhead posts and Landmarks are a deep reminder of the presence and significance of past, present, and future generations of Secwépemc communities and their relationship to lands and waters in the Pespeséllkwe caretaker area of Secwepemcúl̓ecw.


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